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Published London : Palladian Publications, Language English. Author Roberts, J. Rathbone, A. Physical Description xvii, p. Subjects British Standards Institution. Building, Brick -- Standards -- Great Britain. Masonry -- Standards -- Great Britain. Notes "A Viewpoint publication". Bibliography: p. View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links Convert currency. Add to Basket.
Book Description Spon Press, Condition: Fair. This book has hardback covers. Ex-library, With usual stamps and markings, In fair condition, suitable as a study copy. Please note the Image in this listing is a stock photo and may not match the covers of the actual item,grams, ISBN Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller. Condition: Good.
Ex-library, so some stamps and wear, and may have sticker on cover, but in good overall condition.
Timber frame construction 5th edition
Seller Inventory Z1-E Book Description Viewpoint, Volume 2. In case of halls, we have onlyend walls and there are no intermediatecross walls. If hall is longer than 8. The longwalls will therefore function as proppedcantilevers, and should be designedaccordingly, providing diaphragm walls, iffound necessary. Use of diaphragm wallshas been ex lained in E Also endwalls will I! It isnecessary that RCC slab of the roofingsystem must bear on the end walls so thatlateral load is transmitted to these wallsthrough shear resistance. Method ofstructural analysis of a hall is illustrated inSolved Example E-l 1.
With braced trusses as lateralsupports, longitudinal walls will functionas propped, cantilevers and should bedesigned accordingly. Even when designedas propped cantilever, ordinary solid wallsmay have. In that situationuse of diaphragm walls may be resorted tosince that can result in considerableeconomy. When bricks of size 23 X Itthus acts like a cantilever fixed at the baseand free at the top. For design of freestanding walls please see comments onE If a wall is intended to retain some drymaterial and there is no likelihood of anyhydrostatic pressure, the design of wallcould be based on permissible tension inmasonry.
A retaining wall intended tosupport earth should be designed as agravity structure, placing no reliance onflexural movement of resistance, since watercan get access to the back of the wall andimpose pressure through tensile cracks if anyand endanger the structure. However, inthe Code it has been given as the height betweencentres of supports, which is in accordance withthe provisions of British Standard CP-I I I : Part2 : as well as Australian Standard Since thickness of floors is generally verysmall as compared to height of floors, this methodof reckoning actual height will not make anyappreciable difference in the end results.
Onecould, therefore, take actual height as given in theCode or clear distance between supports as maybe found convenient to use in calculations. In this casewe may design the element just as a wallsupporting a concentrated load, taking advantageof the increase in the supporting area due to thepier projection.
However in case, the wall and piersarc supporting a distributed load, we would getthe advantage of stiffening effect of peirs asin 4. The clause makes stipulations forreckoning effective height of columnsformed by openings in a wall for the twocases:a when wall has full restraint at top andbottom; andb when wall has partial restraint at topand bottom. These two cases areillustrated in Fig. In the case of b see Fig. E , if heightof neither opening exceeds 0.
For thedirection perpendicular to the wall, there isa likelihood of a situation when no joistrests on the column formed between theopenings and thus effective height is takenas 2H that is, for a column having notatera support at the top. That explains why effectivethickness of a cavity wall is taken as two-thirds of the sum of the act,ual thickness oftwo leaves. In this type of wall either one leaf inner or both leaves could be load bearing. Inthe former case, effective thickness will betwo-thirds the sum of the two leaves or theactual thickness of the loaded leafwhichever is more.
In the latter caseeffective thickness will be two-thirds of thesum of thickness of both the leaves, or theactual thickness of the stronger leaf,whichever is more. Buckling isresisted by horizontal supports such asfloors and roofs, as well as by verticalsupports such as cross walls, piers andbuttresses. Thus capacity of the walls totake vertical loads depends both onhorizontal supports that is, floor or roof aswell as on vertical supports that is, crosswalls, piers and buttresses.
However, forthe sake of simplicity and erring on safeside, lesser of the two slenderness ratios,namely, one derived from height and theother derived from length is taken intoconsideration for determining permissiblestresses in. For the purpose of design, higher of thetwo values is taken into account sincecolumn will buckle around that axis withreference to which the value of SR iscritical, that is, greater.
As this ratio increases, cripplingstress of the member gets reduced becauseof limitations of workmanship and elasticinstability. A masonry member may fail,either due to excessive stress or due tobuckling see Fig. According toSahlin p. From consideration ofstructural soundness and economy ofdesign, most codes control the maximumslenderness ratio of walls and columns soas to ensure failure by excessive stressrather than buckling.
Limiting values of SR are less for masonrybuilt in lime mortar, as compared to thatbuilt in cement mortar, because the former,being relatively weaker, is more liable tobuckling. Similarly,, values of maximumSR are less for taller buildings sinceimperfections in workmanship in regard toverticality are likely to be morepronounced in case of taller buildings.
Limiting values of SR for column is lessthan that of walls because a column canbuckle around either of the two horizontalaxes, while walls can buckle aroundhorizontal axis only. Since slenderness of a masonry elementincreases its tendency to buckle,permissible compressive stress of anelement is related to its slenderness ratioand is determined by applying Stressreduction factor ks as given in Table 9 ofthe Coda Values of Stress reduction factorhave been worked out see Appendix B ofBS by taking into considerationaccentricity in loading because ofslenderness.
Strictly speaking full value ofstress reduction factor is applicable onlyfor central one-fifth height of the member. In practice however for the sake ofsimplicity in design calculations, stressreduction factor is applied to the masonrythroughout its storey height Note 3 underTable 9 of the Code is an exception andfor designing masonry for a particularstorey height, generally stress is workedout at the section just above the bottomsupport assuming it to be maximum at thatsection.
Theoretically critical section in. Thus provisions of the Code and the designprocedure in question, as commonlyfollowed, is an approximation, that errs onthe safe side. Advantage of Note 3 under Table 9 of theCode is taken when considering bearingstress under a concentrated load from abeam.
Bearing stress is worked outimmediately below the beam and thisshould not exceed the Basic compressivestress of masonry see Table 8 of theCode. This should not exceed thepermissible compressive stress in masonry.
Course on the Design of masonry to Eurocode 6
In accordance with 5. For Checking bearingstress under such a load, however, someauthorities on masonry recommend aconservative approach-that is, either totake advantage of Note 3 of Table 9 of theCode or to take advantage of provisions of5.
In this connection reference may be madeto commentary portion 4. Thus combinedeffect of slenderness and eccentricity istaken into consideration in designcalculations by the factor known as Stressreduction factor ks as given in Table 9 ofthe Code. Eccentricity caused by an ectientric verticalload is maximum at the top of a member,that is, at the point of loading and it isassumed to reduce linearly to zero at thebottom of the member that is, just abovethe bottom lateral support, whileeccentricity on account of slenderness of amember is zero at the two supports and ismaximum at the middle.
Taking thecombined effect of eccenrricity of loadingand slenderness critical stress in masonryoccurs at a section 0.
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In other words thedesign method commonly adopted includesextra self weight of 0. In view of the fact that designcalculations for masonry are not veryprecise, the above approximation isjustified. While all walls in general cantake vertical loads, ability of a wall totake lateral loads depends on itsdisposition in relation to the direction oflateral load.
This could be bestexplained with the help of anillustration. In Fig.
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E, the wall A has goodresistance against a lateral load, whilewall B offers very little resistance tosuch load. The lateral loads acting onthe face of a building are transmittedthrough floors which act as horizontalbeams to cross walls which act ashorizontal beams to cross walls whichact as shear walls. From cross walls,loads are transmitted to the foundation. This action is illustrated in Fig. Stress pattern in cross walls due tolateral loads is illustrated in Fig.
The strength and stiffness of 2 that is floors ashorizontal girder is vital; floors of lightweightconstruction should be used with care. It will be of interest tonote that a wall which is carrying-greatervertical loads, will be in a better position toresist lateral loads than the one which islightly loaded in the vertical direction. Thispoint should be kept in view whileplanning the structure so as to achieveeconomy in structural design.